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  1. L. Alan Sroufe, Ph.D., Professor, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota.
  2. E. Mark Cummings, Ph.D., Professor, Children and Families Developmental Psychopathology, Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame. From: Cummings, Davies, & Campbell (In Press). Developmental Psychopathology and Family Process. NY: Guilford Publications, Inc.; and Cummings, GoekyMorey, & Graham (In Press). “Interparental relations as a dimension of parenting.” BristolPower, Borkowski, & Landesman Ramey (Eds.). Parenting and the child’s world: Multiple influences on intellectual and socioemotional development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  3. Kristen Moore, Ph.D., Executive Director, and Tamara Halle, Child Trends, Inc.,Washington D.C.
  4. John Borkowski, Ph.D.,Andrew J. McKenna Family Chair and Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame.
  5. Sharon Ladesman Ramey, Ph.D., Director and Professor, Civitan International Research Center, University of Alabama.
  6. Laraine M. Glidden, Ph.D., Division of Human Development, St. Mary’s College of Maryland.
  7. Geraldine Dawson, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology and Center on Human Development and Disability, University ofWashington, Seattle.
  8. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, America’s Children: Key National Indicators ofWellBeing, 2000. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics,Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  9. Cohn and Tronick, Child Development, 1983.
  10. Rubin, Stewart, and Chen. Handbook of Parenting,Volume 1, 1995.
  11. Dorr and Rabin, Handbook of Parenting,Volume 4, 1995.
  12. Edwards, Handbook of Parenting,Volume 1, 1995.
  13. Stevenson and Lee, SRCD Monographs, 1990.
  14. RadkeYarrow et al., Manual of Child Psychology, Mussen (ed.), 1983.


The NICHD would like to thank the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation for its contributions to the conference Parenting and the Child’s World: Multiple Influences on Intellectual and Socio-economic Development, which provided the impetus for this publication, and its continued support for this effort. The NICHD would also like to thank the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research for its support of this publication.

The author would like to thank John Borkowski, PhD, Marie Bristol-Power, PhD, Dana Bynum, and Sharon Landesman-Ramey, PhD, for their dedication and assistance in creating this publication, and Laraine M. Glidden, PhD,. for her keen review of the material. In addition, the author gives a special nod of thanks to the staff of the Public Information and Communications Branch of the NICHD for their patience and careful reviews of the material presented in this publication.

In addition, the author sends her deepest thanks to Margaret Georgiann for her creativity, design expertise, and patience in completing this booklet.


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